Munn- og kleyvasótt


á tungu hjá neyti og undir góma.....
á tungu og á tannhaldi....
og á innsíðu á vørr hjá seyði.

Upplýsingar um munn- og kleyvasótt frá
OIE (Office International des Epizooties)


Classification of the causative agent

A virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus.
Seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia1

Resistance to physical and chemical action

Temperature:  Preserved by refrigeration and freezing and progressively inactivated by temperatures above 50°C

pH: Inactivated by pH <6.0 or >9.0

Disinfectants:  Inactivated by sodium hydroxide (2%), sodium carbonate (4%), and citric acid (0.2%). Resistant to iodophores, quaternary ammonium compounds, hypoclorite and phenol, especially in the presence of organic matter

Survival:  Survives in lymph nodes and bone marrow at neutral pH, but destroyed in muscle when is pH <6.0 i.e. after rigor mortis. Can persist in contaminated fodder and the environment for up to 1 month, depending on the temperature and pH conditions


One of the most contagious animal diseases, with important economic losses
Low mortality rate in adult animals, but often high mortality in young due to myocarditis

Bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility

Direct or indirect contact (droplets)
Animate vectors (humans, etc.)
Inanimate vectors (vehicles, implements)
Airborne, especially temperate zones (up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea)
Sources of virus

Incubating and clinically affected animals
Breath, saliva, faeces, and urine; milk and semen (up to 4 days before clinical signs)
Meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0
Carriers: particularly cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). African Cape buffalo are the major maintenance host of SAT serotypes

FMD is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas)
For detailed information on occurrence, see recent issues of World Animal Health and the OIE Bulletin


Incubation period is 2-14 days

Clinical diagnosis


Pyrexia, anorexia, shivering, reduction in milk production for 2-3 days, then
smacking of the lips, grinding of the teeth, drooling, lameness, stamping or kicking of the feet: caused by vesicles (aphthae) on buccal and nasal mucous membranes and/or between the claws and coronary band
after 24 hours: rupture of vesicles leaving erosions
vesicles can also occur on the mammary glands
Recovery generally occurs within 8-15 days
Complications: tongue erosions, superinfection of lesions, hoof deformation, mastitis and permanent impairment of milk production, myocarditis, abortion, death of young animals, permanent loss of weight, loss of heat control ('panters')
Sheep and goats

Lesions are less pronounced. Foot lesions may go unrecognised. Lesions in dental pad of sheep. Agalactia in milking sheep and goats is a feature. Death of young stock

May develop severe foot lesions particularly when housed on concrete. High mortality in piglets a frequent occurrence

Vesicles or blisters on the tongue, dental pad, gums, cheek, hard and soft palate, lips, nostrils, muzzle, coronary bands, teats, udder, snout of pigs, corium of dewclaws and interdigital spaces
Post-mortem lesions on rumen pillars, in the myocardium, particularly of young animals (tiger heart)
Differential diagnosis

Clinically indistinguishable:

Vesicular stomatitis
Swine vesicular disease
Vesicular exanthema of swine
Other differential diagnosis:

Mucosal disease
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
Bovine mammillitis
Bovine papular stomatitis
Bovine viral diarrhoea
Laboratory diagnosis


Identification of the agent
Complement fixation test
Virus isolation: inoculation of primary bovine thyroid cells and primary pig, calf and lamb kidney cells; inoculation of BHK-21 and IB-RS-2 cell lines; inoculation of mice

Serological tests
Virus neutralisation test
 (prescribed tests in the Manual)


1 g of tissue from an unruptured or recently ruptured vesicle. Epithelial samples should be placed in a transport medium which maintains a pH of 7.2-7.4 and kept cool (see Manual)
Oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid collected by means of a probang cup Probang samples should be frozen to below -40°C immediately after collection
NB!! Special precautions are required when sending perishable suspect FMD material within and between countries. See Manual, Chapter 1.4.


Sanitary prophylaxis

Protection of free zones by border animal movement control and surveillance
Slaughter of infected, recovered, and FMD-susceptible contact animals
Disinfection of premises and all infected material (implements, cars, clothes, etc.)
Destruction of cadavers, litter, and susceptible animal products in the infected area
Quarantine measures (Code Chapter 2.1.1.)
Medical prophylaxis

Inactivated virus vaccine containing an adjuvant.
Immunity: 6 months after two initial vaccinations, 1-month apart, depending on the antigenic relationship between vaccine and outbreak strains.


Nøkur uppskot til upplýsingar um munn- og kleyvasótt:
Sheep Veterinary Society